An opinion this week from the Southern District of New York, SEC v. Alderson[1] [click here], held that an RIA’s communications with lawyers associated with its third-party compliance consultant were not protected by the attorney-client privilege or the attorney work-product doctrine. As a result, the district court compelled disclosure of over 230 communications passing between the RIA’s in-house counsel and its third-party compliance firm (staffed with licensed attorneys) before and during the course of an examination of the RIA by the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).[2] This ruling raises important considerations for an RIA or broker-dealer when engaging outside compliance consultants and lawyers, especially if the firm intends for certain of or all of those communications to be cloaked with privilege.
Continue Reading An RIA’S Communications with Attorney Consultants Associated with its Outside Compliance Firm are Always Privileged, RIGHT? Well, That Depends . . .

KPMG must pay $50 million after the Securities and Exchange Commission charged the accounting giant with cheating on training exams and using purloined information concerning audit inspections to be conducted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB).  KPMG agreed to the $50 million penalty and also accepted a public censure as part of the settlement.
Continue Reading Audit Firm to Pay $50 Million Penalty for Using Information Pilfered From PCAOB

Celadon Group Inc. announced a settlement with the SEC and the DOJ over allegations of accounting fraud.[1]  The company agreed to pay restitution of over $42 million in connection with a Deferred Prosecution Agreement with the DOJ, and to pay disgorgement of roughly $7.5 million in a parallel SEC settlement.  The disgorgement obligation is deemed satisfied by payment of the $42 million restitution amount.
Continue Reading Freight Company Charged with Truckload of Accounting Fraud

Securities litigation frequently raises the question of what conduct constitutes a primary violation of the federal securities laws, specifically, Rule 10b-5 and the various other antifraud provisions.  Must one make a false statement in order to be primarily liable?[1]  The Supreme Court held in Janus Capital Group, Inc. v. First Derivative Traders that only those who “make any untrue statement of material fact” may violate Rule 10b5-(b).[2] 
Continue Reading Janus Meets Its Maker: The Supreme Court Expands Primary Liability in Lorenzo v. SEC

The Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) recently published its Risk Monitoring and Examination Priorities Letter (the “Letter”) for 2019 and signaled its intent to expand the scope of its priorities and exam program. Unlike previous years, FINRA’s 2019 Letter took a “somewhat new approach” by identifying materially new areas of emphasis.[1] Admittedly, FINRA will continue to examine longstanding priorities detailed in prior letters,[2] but in adding “Risk Monitoring” to the title to the Letter, FINRA notified the industry it planned to broaden its exam program into three materially new priorities: (1) online distribution platforms, (2) fixed income mark-up disclosure, and (3) regulatory technology.[3] 
Continue Reading What You Should Know About FINRA’s Exam Priorities for 2019

As a follow-up to our last post on the status of the EB-5 Program, the EB-5 Program has been renewed, at least for the short-term.

After the government shutdown ended, and on the evening of Valentine’s Day, Congress pushed the spending bill through to renew the EB-5 Program until September 30, 2019.[1]  Because the EB-5 Program does not have permanent legislation authorization, it will continue so long as Congress periodically renews the program. However, whether the program will continue in the long-run is still up in the air in light of growing criticisms of the Immigrant Investor Program.[2] For now, however, the EB-5 Program will continue at least until the fall of this year.
Continue Reading Update: The EB-5 Program Has Been Renewed . . . For Now

The SEC recently announced insider-trading charges against the former senior lawyer at Apple specifically tasked with ensuring insider-trading compliance at the company.[1]  The Department of Justice also addressed this case of “the fox guarding the hen house” by filing criminal charges against the former Apple attorney.  The defendant, Gene Daniel Levoff, denies all charges and vows to defend himself.
Continue Reading Attorney Responsible for Insider-Trading Compliance Faces Charges of…Insider Trading

A former broker at a national brokerage firm was recently sanctioned by FINRA after accepting instructions to transfer assets out of a client account. The problem? The instructions were actually sent by an imposter who had obtained access to the client’s account, presumably through some form of cyber-crime.  Unfortunately, the broker unwittingly contributed to the imposter’s malfeasance by not only accepting the instructions but by also taking pro-active steps to circumvent his brokerage firm’s controls.
Continue Reading Cybersecurity: Don’t Become a Different Kind of Victim

On September 28, 2018, the U.S. Congress passed an appropriations bill that extended the EB-5 Immigrant Investor Program (the “EB-5 Program”) in its current form through December 7, 2018.[1] Thus, the EB-5 Program will expire on December 7, 2018, unless it is renewed once again for another couple of months to a year.

Although the

The regulatory framework for virtual currencies is evolving, as federal and state regulators and courts wrestle with the circumstances in which cryptocurrencies are securities.  For instance, the staff of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) has observed that tokens, which start as securities, can become something other than a security over time as a token’s network becomes “sufficiently decentralized.”[1]  In fact, the SEC staff indicate that more comprehensive yet “plain English” guidance will be forthcoming before the end of this year.[2]  In the meantime, we highlight a recent court case considering the question.  In U.S. v. Zaslavskiy[3], a federal court considered whether a cryptocurrency can be regarded as a security.  That case involved criminal charges against Maksim Zaslavskiy accused of promoting digital currencies backed by investments in real estate and diamonds that prosecutors said did not exist.[4]  The U.S. District Judge in New York decided that the prosecutors could proceed with their case alleging that the cryptocurrencies at issue were securities for purposes of federal criminal law.

Prosecutors argued that investments offered by Zaslavskiy in two initial coin offerings (“ICOs”)—REcoin Group Foundation and Diamond Reserve Club—were “investment contracts” that were securities under the federal securities laws.  Zaslavskiy, on the other hand, filed a motion to dismiss the prosecutors’ securities fraud claims, arguing that the virtual currencies promoted in the ICOs are “currencies,” and therefore, by definition, not securities.[5]
Continue Reading Federal Court Evaluates When Cryptocurrency May Constitute a Security in a Criminal Case